Clinical, Genetic, and Outcome Characteristics of Pediatric Patients with Primary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis


Nepesov S., YAMAN Y., ELLİ M., BAYRAM N., ÖZDİLLİ K., KIYKIM A., ...More

Turkish Archives of Pediatrics, vol.57, no.4, pp.398-405, 2022 (Scopus) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 57 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.5152/turkarchpediatr.2022.21314
  • Journal Name: Turkish Archives of Pediatrics
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.398-405
  • Keywords: Genetic analysis, children, primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Objectİive: In this study, we sought to describe the clinical, laboratory, and genetic characteristics of patients diagnosed with primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the early diagnosis and appropriate treatment options for pediatric hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 9 patients diagnosed with primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis between November 2013 and December 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. Clinical, genetic, and laboratory characteristics, family histories, initial complaints, physical examination findings, age at diagnosis, treatment choices, and clinical follow-up of all patients were investigated. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 11 months (range: 1.5 months to 17 years). Genetic analysis was performed in all patients, and a disease-related mutation was detected in 8 (89%) of them. Among clinical features, 6 (66%) patients had fever, 5 (56%) had splenomegaly, 4 (44%) had lymphadenopathy, 4 (44%) had skin rash, and 4 (44%) had neurological findings. Hemophagocytosis was observed in the bone marrow samples of 6 (66%) patients. Disease remission was achieved in 7 (78%) patients. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was performed in 7 (78%) patients. Conclusion: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis may present with different clinical symptoms that can cause a significant diagnostic delay. The only curative treatment option in primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The chemotherapy should be started as early as possible, in order to achieve a disease remission. Patients should be referred to the appropriate bone marrow transplant center for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as soon as they reach the disease remission.