3.5 GHz radiofrequency radiation may affect biomechanics of bone and muscle of diabetics

Bektaş H., DAŞDAĞ S., Nalbant A., Akdag M. B., Demir C., Kavak S.

Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment, vol.37, no.1, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 37 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/13102818.2023.2199096
  • Journal Name: Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: 5G, 3, 5 GHz radiofrequency radiation, bone, skeletal muscle, biomechanics, oxidative stress
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


With the developments in wireless technologies, living beings are increasingly exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). EMFs are known to affect bone metabolism and muscle tissue. However, their effects on bones and skeletal muscles are controversial, as some studies have reported positive effects while others have reported adverse effects. In this study, the effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on bone biomechanics and skeletal muscle tissues were investigated in diabetic and healthy rats. Rats were exposed to 3.5 GHz RFR for 2 h per day for 30 days. Bone biomechanics measurements were taken to evaluate the effects of RFR on bone quality, flexibility and durability. The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was found to be 37 mW/kg. The results showed that RFR exposure had adverse effects on bone biomechanics, including decreased elasticity coefficient and Young’s modulus, increased maximum displacement and decreased maximum force. However, oxidative stress parameters in diabetics were also altered by 3.5 GHz RFR to a greater extent than in healthy rats. In conclusion, 3.5 GHz RFR may have potential to alter bone quality and structural integrity including muscle oxidative stress parameters in rats. It should be emphasized that the observed changes were more obvious in diabetic rats. In addition, the changes observed in healthy and diabetic rats exposed to RFR showed a statistically significant difference according to the sham groups.