Therapeutic effects of rivastigmine and alfa-lipoic acid combination in the charles bonnet syndrome: Electroencephalography correlates

HANOĞLU L., YILDIZ S., POLAT B., Demirci S., Tavli A. M., Yilmaz N., ...More

Current Clinical Pharmacology, vol.11, no.4, pp.270-273, 2016 (Scopus) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.2174/1574884711666161003153616
  • Journal Name: Current Clinical Pharmacology
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.270-273
  • Keywords: Charles Bonnet Syndrome, quantitative EEG analysis, multimodal treatments
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) is a rare clinical condition which is characterized by complex hallucinations in visually impaired patients. The pathophysiology of this disorder remains largely unknown, and there is still no proven treatment for this disease. In our study, we aimed to investigate the neural activity through Electroencephalography (EEG) power and evaluate the effect of rivastigmine in combination with alpha-lipoic acid on hallucination in two CBS patients with diabetic retinopathy. Methods: EEG data was recorded with standard routine EEG protocols for both patients in our electrophysiological research laboratory (REMER Clinical Electrophysiology and Neuromodulation Research and Application Laboratory) with Brain Vision Recorder (Brainproduct, Munich, Germany). All spectral analyses were processed by BrainVision Analyzer 2 (Brainproduct, Munich, Germany, 2.0.4 Version) in 128 Hz sample rates and the EEG recording and analysis was performed before the administration of rivastigmine (4.5 mg/daily and five patch daily for the first and second patients, respectively) in combination with alpha-lipoic acid (600 mg/daily) for both patients while they were not hallucinated during the time period recordings. Based on our measurement protocol, we have compared the patients in the study group with the three control subjects who were found to be normal except of visual disturbances secondary to significant diabetic retinopathy. Results: Highest theta power values were found in right occipital and left temporo-parietal regions for first and second CBS patients, respectively. Additionally, power spectra were lower in two cases as compared to their control groups in the alpha band for all electrodes. We have also shown that acid rivastigmine in combination with alpha-lipoic exerted significant anti-hallucinatory efficiency. Conclusion: Our present findings could support the hypothesis that increased activation of specific areas in the source monitoring system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CBS. In addition, rivastigmine in combination with alpha-lipoic acid could be a new valuable option for CBS patients.