The use of diclofenac sodium in urological practice: A structural and neurochemical based review

Ulubay M., Yurt K. K., Kaplan A. A., Atilla M. K.

Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, vol.87, pp.32-36, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 87
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2017.02.005
  • Journal Name: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.32-36
  • Keywords: Diclofenac sodium, Urology, Cyclooxygenase, Nanoparticles
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: No


Diclofenac sodium (DS) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with antipyretic and analgesic effects. It is mainly found in the form of sodium salt. The mechanism of action of DS operates by way of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. The physiological effect of this substance derives from a decrease in prostaglandin production. DS is a benzeneacetic acid derivative with anti-inflammatory properties. As a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), DS binds to both forms of COX (COX-1 and COX-2) and inhibits the conversion of arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory prostaglandins by means of chelation. At the same time, this agent is also able to inhibit tumor angiogenesis, in which COX-2 is involved. DS is effective in overcoming pain and inflammation when it inhibits COX-2, but gastrointestinal side effects appear when it inhibits COX-1. In this review, we have focused on chemical structure and pharmacokinetic properties and renal effects of DS in light of current knowledge. Additionally, use of diclofenac nanoparticles were also discussed.