Validity and reliability of nine types temperament scale

Yilmaz E. D., GenÇer A. G., Aydemir Ö., Yilmaz A., Kesebir S., Ünal Ö., ...More

Egitim ve Bilim, vol.39, no.171, pp.115-137, 2014 (SSCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 39 Issue: 171
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Journal Name: Egitim ve Bilim
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.115-137
  • Keywords: Temperament, Nine Types Temperament Model, Nine Types Temperament Scale, Reliability, Validity
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


The aim of this study is to develop a scale compatible with the Nine Types Temperament Model (NTTM), which did not have any prior measurement tools to scientifically prove its reliability and validity. NTTM is created by re-evaluating the Enneagram System-a system that defines nine personality types- used for analyzing and comprehending ego mechanisms. Nine Types Temperament Scale (NTTS) which is a self-rated instrument composed of 91 items with three-point Likert type was developed from this model and applied to 990 participants. Confirmatory factor analyses were carried out in order to evaluate whether the scale fits to the model related to the temperament model. In exploratory factor analyses of the scale eigen values of nine factors vary between 8.089 and 1.661, and represent 39.04% of the total variance. In confirmatory analyses of the scale CFI value is 0.88, GFI value is 0.84, IFI value is 0.88 and RMSEA value is 0.05. Test-retest reliability of the scale was evaluated with 46 participants. Cronbach alpha value of the whole scale is 0.75, while Cronbach alpha values for every temperament type were calculated as 0.77, 0.79, 0.68, 0.71, 0.80, 0.74, 0.71, 0.83 and 0.77 respectively. Concurrent validity was performed with Cloninger's TCI (Temperament and Character Inventory) and Akiskal's TEMPS-A (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire Version). The types of NTTM showed significant correlations with TCI and TEMPS-A. Results of the study support that NTTS is a reliable and valid scale.