Bioconjugated β-Cyclodextrin-Perfluorohexane Nanocone Clusters as Functional Nanoparticles for Nanoparticle-Mediated Histotripsy

Toydemir C., Hall S., Demirel E., Elmaci D. N., Gol D., Vlaisavljevich E., ...More

Biomacromolecules, vol.23, no.12, pp.5297-5311, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 23 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acs.biomac.2c01110
  • Journal Name: Biomacromolecules
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Compendex, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.5297-5311
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Nanocone clusters (NCCs) are new-generation agents of nanoparticle-mediated histotripsy (NMH) recently developed to address the limitations of previously designed nanodroplets (NDs). NCCs can be obtained by simply mixing FDA-approved cyclodextrins (CD) and suitable perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which result in smaller size aggregates, detectable PFC amount, and more stable long-term storage since the obtained powder can be stored and redispersed as needed. Previous experimental and computational studies showed that NCCs consist of an organization of inclusion complexes of CD and PFC around free PFC droplets, and their aggregate behavior depends on the localization of PFC in the cavity and the water solubility of CD derivatives. It has been shown that β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and perfluorohexane (PFH) are ideal candidates for NCCs that can be isolated as a powder with high PFC content among various CD and PFC derivatives. This study focuses on the further development of the selected NCC composition to enhance the potential of NMH therapy while also enabling more detailed future experiments in vitro and in vivo. It is aimed to show the bioconjugation potential of NCCs through the example of the most commonly used functionalization methods such as targeting, PEGylation, and fluorescent labeling. For this purpose, βCD as a building block was monofunctionalized with groups such as azide, alkyne, and amine groups that allow for effective coupling reactions such as the "click" reaction and N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling. These monofunctional βCDs were used as building blocks of NCCs in the presence of PFH to obtain functional NCCs as precursors of bioconjugation. EPPT1 as a synthetic peptide specific to uMUC1 and folic acid (FA) as the most commonly used targeting agent along with PEGylation were successfully shown as bioconjugation examples. Lastly, fluorescently labeled NCCs were obtained via fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and alkyne functional NCC reaction through propargyl amine and isothiocyanate group reaction. The obtained bioconjugates were tested in vitro to validate the conjugation, and the ability to lower the histotripsy cavitation threshold, which is necessary for NMH, was demonstrated for all bioconjugates. Overall, the results showed that all obtained bioconjugates successfully lowered the cavitation threshold pressure while also fulfilling the desired bioconjugation metrics to serve as improved tools to enhance NMH as a targeted noninvasive ablation method.