Diagnostic value of enhanced-contrast ultrasound for cesarean scar pregnancy: A systematic review

Hosseini R. S., Ebrahimi P. S., Shokrani A.

European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol.293, pp.119-124, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 293
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2023.12.028
  • Journal Name: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.119-124
  • Keywords: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound, Diagnostic value, Enhanced contrast ultrasound, Pregnancy scar pregnancy
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Cesarean scar pregnancy, an uncommon ectopic pregnancy in which the embryo is implanted in the cesarean scar, poses significant risks without prompt diagnosis and treatment. Its prevalence has risen alongside increased cesarean section rates. Despite various treatment approaches, consensus remains elusive. Ultrasonography, particularly contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, shows promise in cesarean scar pregnancy diagnosis. Main body: This systematic review, following PRISMA guidelines, explores contrast-enhanced ultrasound's diagnostic potential in cesarean scar pregnancy. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar up to August 2023. Selection involved two stages: title/abstract screening and full-text assessment. The included studies investigated contrast-enhanced ultrasound's diagnostic value in cesarean scar pregnancy, provided adequate data, and were peer-reviewed in English. Quality assessment followed the QUADAS-2 criteria. We extracted the diagnostic accuracy metrics: sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Out of 193 records, five studies met the inclusion criteria (2016–2020, China). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound displayed sensitivities of 77%-100% and specificities of 95%-100%. Two studies reported accuracy of 96.9%-97.8%. Compared with conventional ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound exhibited superior sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. It also outperformed transvaginal ultrasound. Conclusion: Enhanced-contrast ultrasound holds promise for diagnosing and managing cesarean scar pregnancy by visualizing scar vascularization in real-time, thereby reducing severe complication risks. This review highlights contrast-enhanced ultrasound as a transformative diagnostic tool for cesarean scar pregnancy management, despite existing evidence limitations.