Gaussian-based hybrid approach to Entropy for analyzing energy efficiency of emerging economies


Energy Reports, vol.7, pp.2501-2511, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 7
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.egyr.2021.04.049
  • Journal Name: Energy Reports
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.2501-2511
  • Keywords: Energy efficiency, Fuzzy entropy, Gaussian fuzzy numbers, Fuzzy TODIM, Fuzzy DEMATEL, Emerging economies, Fuzzy TOPSIS
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


This study aims to evaluate energy efficiency in emerging economies. Within this context, a hybrid fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) model is generated. In this model, firstly 7 different criteria that can affect energy efficiency are identified with the help of a comprehensive literature review. After that, these criteria are weighted by considering Gaussian fuzzy Entropy methodology. In the next stage, emerging 7 (E7) countries are ranked regarding the performance of energy efficiency with Gaussian fuzzy the interactive multi-criteria decision-making (TODIM) approach. In the final stage, the criteria have also been evaluated by using fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method for robustness check. Similarly, the alternatives are also ranked by using technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to evaluate the coherency of the analysis results. Finally, the calculations are also made with triangular and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to control the reliability of the proposed model. The findings indicate that economic development and technological competency are the main factors that influence energy efficiency. Moreover, it is also stated that Russia and Brazil are the most successful countries in energy efficiency whereas India and Turkey are in the last places. Therefore, these issues can be helpful to minimize the costs of energy usage for these countries