Protective Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) against Metho-trexate-induced Kidney Damage

Macit Ç., Özbeyli D., Cevik O., Cetin M., Sener G., Özkan S.

Current Drug Therapy, vol.18, no.3, pp.231-236, 2023 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 18 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.2174/1574885518666230112110246
  • Journal Name: Current Drug Therapy
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, EMBASE
  • Page Numbers: pp.231-236
  • Keywords: kidney, methotrexate, Momordica charantia, nephrotoxicity, oxidative damage, protective effect
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Methotrexate is a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent that has severe side ef-fects, such as nephrotoxicity. Momordica charantia is a bright yellow-orange fruity plant that has been shown to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Methods: 24 Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into three experimental groups (8 rats in each): Control (C); Methotrexate (MTX); and Methotrexate plus Momordica charantia (MTX+MC). All rats were fed ad libitum and tap water. Methotrexate was administered at 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally as a single dose. In the MTX+MC group, MC was administered at a dose of 50mg/kg for 5 days orally. At the end of the 5th day, the rats were decapitated and kidney samples were taken to analyze glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and caspase-3 activity. Data was analyzed with GraphPad Prism 5.0. Results: Findings showed that while there was a significant increase in MDA, MPO, 8-OHdG levels, and an essential reduction in GSH levels in the MTX-treated group when compared with the control group, bitter melon treatment significantly reversed MDA, MPO, and 8-OHdG levels (p< 0.001). GSH level elevation was observed in the MTX-MC group when compared to the MTX-treated group (p< 0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that bitter melon is thought to have a protective effect against kidney damage caused by methotrexate. With future studies, we believe that the use of bitter melon extract as a protective agent in kidney damage caused by drug-induced oxidative damage will bring an innova-tive approach to treatment.