Remembering the Occam’s Razor: Could Simple Electrocardiographic Findings Provide Relevant Predictions for Current Hemodynamic Criteria of Pulmonary Hypertension?

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Tokgöz H. C., Öcal B. E., Erkuş Y. C., Üzel S. T., Kültürsay B., Tosun A., ...More

Anatolian Journal of Cardiology, vol.27, no.11, pp.664-672, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.14744/anatoljcardiol.2023.3181
  • Journal Name: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Directory of Open Access Journals, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.664-672
  • Keywords: Electrocardiogram, INTRODUCTION, pulmonary hypertension, QRS axis
  • Istanbul Medipol University Affiliated: Yes


Background: We evaluated the predictive value of electrocardiographic (ECG) findings for pulmonary hemodynamics assessed by right heart catheterization (RHC). Methods: Our study population comprised 562 retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent RHC between 2006 and 2022. Correlations between ECG measures and pulmonary arterial systolic and mean pressures (PASP and PAMP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were investigated. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis assessed the predictive value of ECG for pulmonary hypertension (PH) and precapillary PH. Results: The P-wave amplitude (Pwa) and R/S ratio (r) in V1 and V2, Ra in augmented voltage right (aVR), right or indeterminate axis, but not P wave duration (Pwd) or right bundle branch block (RBBB) significantly correlated with PASP, PAMP, and PVR (P < .001 for all). The partial R2 analysis revealed that amplitude of R wave (Ra) in aVR, R/Sr in V1 and V2, QRS axis, and Pwa added to the base model provided significant contributions to variance for PASP, PAMP, and PVR, respectively. The Pwa > 0.16 mV, Ra in aVR > 0.05 mV, QRS axis > 100° and R/Sr in V1 > 0.9 showed the highest area under curve (AUC) values for PAMP > 20 mm Hg. Using the same cutoff value, Ra in aVR, Pwa, QRS axis, and R/Sr in V1 showed highest predictions for PVR > 2 Wood Units (WU). Conclusion: In this study, Pwa, Ra in aVR, right or indeterminate axis deviations, and R/Sr in V1 and V2 showed statistically significant correlations with pulmonary hemodynamics, and Ra in aVR, R/Sr in V2 and V1, QRS axis, and Pwa contributed to variance for PASP, PAMP, and PVR, respectively. Moreover, Pwa, Ra in aVR, QRS axis, and R/Sr in V1 seem to provide relevant predictions for PH and precapillary PH.